kashbiotech

SARS-CoV-2 Antibody persistence in COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors: Dependency on assay format and applicability to serosurveillance

Background: Antibody response length following SARS-CoV-2 an infection tends to be variable and is dependent upon severity of illness and technique of detection.

Research design and strategies: COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) from 18 donors was collected longitudinally for a most of 63 – 129 days following decision of signs. All of the samples had been initially screened by the Ortho Whole Ig take a look at to verify positivity and subsequently examined with 7 further direct sandwich or oblique binding assays (Ortho, Roche, Abbott, Broad Institute) directed in opposition to a wide range of antigen targets (S1, RBD, and NC), together with 2 neutralization assays (Broad Institute dwell virus PRNT and Vitalant Analysis Institute Pseudovirus RVPN).

Outcomes: The direct detection assays (Ortho Whole Ig whole and Roche Whole Ig) confirmed growing ranges of antibodies over the time interval, in distinction to the oblique IgG assays that confirmed a decline. Neutralization assays additionally demonstrated declining responses; the VRI RVPN pseudovirus had a larger charge of decline than the Broad PRNT dwell virus assay.

Dialogue: These information present that along with variable particular person responses and associations with illness severity, the detection assay chosen contributes to the heterogeneous leads to antibody stability over time. Relying on the scope of the analysis, one assay could also be preferable over one other. For serosurveillance research, direct, double Ag-sandwich assays seem like your best option resulting from their stability; specifically, algorithms that embody each S1 and NC based mostly assays may help cut back the speed of false-positivity and discriminate between pure an infection and vaccine-derived seroreactivity.

Pharmacological mechanisms underlying the efficacy of antibodies generated by a vaccine to deal with oxycodone use dysfunction

 

Therapeutic vaccines provide a viable technique to deal with opioid use issues (OUD) complementary to present pharmacotherapies. The candidate Oxy(Gly)4-sKLH vaccine concentrating on oxycodone displayed pre-clinical proof of efficacy, selectivity and security, and it’s now present process scientific analysis. To additional help its implementation within the clinic, this research examined crucial in vivo neuropsychopharmacological properties of the Oxy(Gly)4-sKLH vaccine in rats. Whereas repeated immunizations with Oxy(Gly)4-sKLH had been vital to keep up the antibody response additional time, publicity to free oxycodone didn’t enhance oxycodone-specific antibody ranges in vaccinated rats, limiting issues of immune-related unwanted effects. Immunization with Oxy(Gly)4-sKLH achieved sustained antibody titers over a interval of 5 months following preliminary vaccination, supporting its potential for offering long-lasting safety.

In vivo research of selectivity confirmed that vaccination prevented oxycodone-induced however not methadone-induced antinociception, whereas nonetheless preserving the opioid antagonist naloxone’s pharmacological results. Vaccination didn’t intervene with fentanyl-induced antinociception or fentanyl distribution to the mind. These in vivo information affirm the beforehand reported in vitro selectivity profile of Oxy(Gly)4-sKLH. Vaccination prolonged oxycodone’s half-life as much as 25 hr in comparison with management. Whereas vaccination diminished the reinforcing efficacy of oxycodone in an intravenous self-administration mannequin, indicators of toxicity weren’t noticed. These rodent research affirm that lively immunization with Oxy(Gly)4-sKLH induces extremely particular and long-lasting antibodies that are efficient in lowering the reinforcing results of oxycodone whereas preserving the efficacy of medicines used to deal with OUD and overdose.

Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein-antibody-associated Dysfunction Presenting with Corticomeningeal Encephalitis previous to the Onset of Optic Neuritis

 

We herein report a case of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibody-associated dysfunction (MOG-AD) presenting with corticomeningeal encephalitis. The affected person exhibited oral ulceration, a gentle impairment of consciousness, fever, nausea, nuchal rigidity, positivity for human leukocyte antigen sort B51, and neutrophil-dominant pleocytosis and interleukin-6 stage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a proper temporal lesion with leptomeningeal gadolinium enhancement.

The preliminary prognosis was neuro-Behçet’s illness presenting with meningoencephalitis; nonetheless, a cell-based assay detected anti-MOG antibody within the serum and CSF and the affected person additionally skilled bilateral optic neuritis. After administering steroid remedy, his neurologic signs and CSF abnormalities improved together with the disappearance of gadolinium enhancement and the lesion on MRI. This case means that MOG-AD could current with corticomeningeal encephalitis previous to the onset of optic neuritis.

kashbiotech
kashbiotech

Excessive antibody ranges in opposition to human herpesvirus-6A work together with life-style components in a number of sclerosis growth

 

Background: An infection with human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) has been instructed to extend a number of sclerosis (MS) danger. Nonetheless, potential interactions between HHV-6A and environmental/life-style danger components for MS haven’t beforehand been studied.

Strategies: We used two Swedish population-based case-control research comprising 5993 instances and 5995 controls. Utilizing logistic regression fashions, topics with completely different HHV-6A antibody ranges, environmental exposures, and life-style habits had been in contrast relating to MS danger, by calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential interactions between excessive HHV-6A antibody ranges and customary environmental exposures and life-style components had been evaluated on the additive scale.

Outcomes: Excessive HHV-6A antibody ranges had been related to elevated danger of growing MS (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.4-1.6). Concerning MS danger, vital interactions had been noticed between excessive HHV-6A antibody ranges and each smoking (attributable proportion (AP) = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.3), low ultraviolet radiation (UVR) publicity (AP = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.4), and low vitamin D ranges (AP = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.0-0.6).

Conclusion: Excessive HHV-6A antibody ranges are related to elevated MS danger and act synergistically with frequent environmental/life-style danger components for MS. Additional analysis is required to analyze potential mechanisms underlying the interactions offered on this research.

Immune subtraction for improved decision in serum protein immunofixation electrophoresis and antibody isotype willpower in a affected person with autoantibody

 

Heavy chain isotypes of low stage monoclonal immunoglobulins are generally obscured in serum immunofixation electrophoresis (SIFE) by a heavy background of polyclonal immunoglobulins. Nonetheless, correct willpower of the heavy chain isotype is crucial for an entire prognosis, as isotype willpower of autoantibodies could have relevance in figuring out therapeutic procedures. Immune subtraction (IS) was employed in a affected person with neuropathy and GD1a autoantibody. IS allowed identification of the cognate heavy chain associated to a lambda mild chain restriction famous on preliminary SIFE in addition to isotype willpower of the autoantibody. Antisera particular to particular person heavy and lightweight chains had been used for depletion of particular immunoglobulin sorts. Depletion of kappa mild chain related immunoglobulins allowed unequivocal willpower of the isotype of lambda mild chain-associated low stage monoclonal band to be IgG Lambda. Selective depletion of kappa, lambda, gamma and mu heavy chain immunoglobulins was employed to decide IgG Kappa isotype of the auto-antibody.

 

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Rat)

4-MAA447Ra28
  • EUR 259.00
  • EUR 2701.00
  • EUR 668.00
  • EUR 327.00
  • EUR 219.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Rat C-Peptide (CP)

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Human), APC

4-MAA447Po21-APC
  • EUR 376.00
  • EUR 3707.00
  • EUR 1020.00
  • EUR 483.00
  • EUR 232.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Human C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with APC.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Human), Biotinylated

4-MAA447Po21-Biotin
  • EUR 334.00
  • EUR 2776.00
  • EUR 806.00
  • EUR 412.00
  • EUR 228.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Human C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with Biotin.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Human), Cy3

4-MAA447Po21-Cy3
  • EUR 459.00
  • EUR 4901.00
  • EUR 1319.00
  • EUR 602.00
  • EUR 267.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Human C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with Cy3.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Human), FITC

4-MAA447Po21-FITC
  • EUR 320.00
  • EUR 2985.00
  • EUR 836.00
  • EUR 406.00
  • EUR 205.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Human C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with FITC.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Human), HRP

4-MAA447Po21-HRP
  • EUR 342.00
  • EUR 3229.00
  • EUR 901.00
  • EUR 435.00
  • EUR 217.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Human C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with HRP.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Human), PE

4-MAA447Po21-PE
  • EUR 320.00
  • EUR 2985.00
  • EUR 836.00
  • EUR 406.00
  • EUR 205.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Human C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with PE.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Rat), APC

4-MAA447Ra21-APC
  • EUR 357.00
  • EUR 3446.00
  • EUR 955.00
  • EUR 457.00
  • EUR 224.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Rat C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with APC.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Rat), Biotinylated

4-MAA447Ra21-Biotin
  • EUR 320.00
  • EUR 2585.00
  • EUR 758.00
  • EUR 393.00
  • EUR 223.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Rat C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with Biotin.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Rat), Cy3

4-MAA447Ra21-Cy3
  • EUR 434.00
  • EUR 4553.00
  • EUR 1232.00
  • EUR 567.00
  • EUR 257.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Rat C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with Cy3.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Rat), FITC

4-MAA447Ra21-FITC
  • EUR 305.00
  • EUR 2776.00
  • EUR 784.00
  • EUR 385.00
  • EUR 199.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Rat C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with FITC.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Rat), HRP

4-MAA447Ra21-HRP
  • EUR 326.00
  • EUR 3003.00
  • EUR 844.00
  • EUR 412.00
  • EUR 211.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Rat C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with HRP.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Rat), PE

4-MAA447Ra21-PE
  • EUR 305.00
  • EUR 2776.00
  • EUR 784.00
  • EUR 385.00
  • EUR 199.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Rat C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with PE.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Rat), APC

4-MAA447Ra28-APC
  • EUR 363.00
  • EUR 3536.00
  • EUR 977.00
  • EUR 466.00
  • EUR 227.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Rat C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with APC.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Rat), Biotinylated

4-MAA447Ra28-Biotin
  • EUR 324.00
  • EUR 2651.00
  • EUR 775.00
  • EUR 400.00
  • EUR 225.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Rat C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with Biotin.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Rat), Cy3

4-MAA447Ra28-Cy3
  • EUR 443.00
  • EUR 4673.00
  • EUR 1262.00
  • EUR 579.00
  • EUR 261.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Rat C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with Cy3.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Rat), FITC

4-MAA447Ra28-FITC
  • EUR 310.00
  • EUR 2848.00
  • EUR 802.00
  • EUR 392.00
  • EUR 201.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Rat C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with FITC.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Rat), HRP

4-MAA447Ra28-HRP
  • EUR 331.00
  • EUR 3081.00
  • EUR 864.00
  • EUR 420.00
  • EUR 213.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Rat C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with HRP.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Rat), PE

4-MAA447Ra28-PE
  • EUR 310.00
  • EUR 2848.00
  • EUR 802.00
  • EUR 392.00
  • EUR 201.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Rat C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with PE.

Canine C-Peptide ELISA Kit

RD-C-Peptide-c-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 533

Canine C-Peptide ELISA Kit

RD-C-Peptide-c-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 740

Canine C-Peptide ELISA Kit

DLR-C-Peptide-c-48T 48T
EUR 527
Description: A competitive inhibition quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Canine C-Peptide in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids.

Canine C-Peptide ELISA Kit

DLR-C-Peptide-c-96T 96T
EUR 688
Description: A competitive inhibition quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Canine C-Peptide in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids.

Canine C-Peptide ELISA Kit

RDR-C-Peptide-c-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 557

Canine C-Peptide ELISA Kit

RDR-C-Peptide-c-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 774

Mouse C-Peptide ELISA Kit

RD-C-Peptide-Mu-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 446

Mouse C-Peptide ELISA Kit

RD-C-Peptide-Mu-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 615

Mouse C-Peptide ELISA Kit

DLR-C-Peptide-Mu-48T 48T
EUR 450
Description: A competitive inhibition quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse C-Peptide in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids.

Mouse C-Peptide ELISA Kit

DLR-C-Peptide-Mu-96T 96T
EUR 582
Description: A competitive inhibition quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse C-Peptide in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids.

Mouse C-Peptide ELISA Kit

RDR-C-Peptide-Mu-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 465

Mouse C-Peptide ELISA Kit

RDR-C-Peptide-Mu-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 643

C-Peptide (CP) Antibody

20-abx130478
  • EUR 453.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1288.00
  • EUR 620.00
  • EUR 342.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

C-Peptide (CP) Antibody

20-abx130479
  • EUR 425.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1177.00
  • EUR 578.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

C-Peptide (CP) Antibody

20-abx132114
  • EUR 356.00
  • EUR 913.00
  • EUR 467.00
  • EUR 154.00
  • EUR 272.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

C-Peptide (CP) Antibody

20-abx176030
  • EUR 425.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1177.00
  • EUR 578.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

C-Peptide (CP) Antibody

20-abx176031
  • EUR 439.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1233.00
  • EUR 592.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Human), APC-Cy7

4-MAA447Po21-APC-Cy7
  • EUR 632.00
  • EUR 7294.00
  • EUR 1921.00
  • EUR 846.00
  • EUR 344.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Human C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with APC-Cy7.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Rat), APC-Cy7

4-MAA447Ra21-APC-Cy7
  • EUR 594.00
  • EUR 6772.00
  • EUR 1790.00
  • EUR 794.00
  • EUR 329.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Rat C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with APC-Cy7.

C-Peptide (CP) Monoclonal Antibody (Rat), APC-Cy7

4-MAA447Ra28-APC-Cy7
  • EUR 607.00
  • EUR 6952.00
  • EUR 1835.00
  • EUR 812.00
  • EUR 334.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
Description: A Mouse monoclonal antibody against Rat C-Peptide (CP). This antibody is labeled with APC-Cy7.

Anti-Calponin Antibody (monoclonal, CP-93)

MA1011 100ug/vial
EUR 334

C-Peptide (CP) Antibody (Biotin)

20-abx106115
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

C-Peptide (CP) Antibody (FITC)

20-abx107529
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

C-Peptide (CP) Antibody (HRP)

20-abx108948
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug

C-Peptide (CP) Antibody (Biotin)

20-abx272515
  • EUR 342.00
  • EUR 217.00
  • EUR 954.00
  • EUR 481.00
  • EUR 286.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug

Mouse Ceruloplasmin (CP) ELISA Kit

RD-CP-Mu-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 489

Mouse Ceruloplasmin (CP) ELISA Kit

RD-CP-Mu-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 677

Mouse Ceruloplasmin (CP) ELISA Kit

DLR-CP-Mu-48T 48T
EUR 489
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Ceruloplasmin (CP) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids.

Mouse Ceruloplasmin (CP) ELISA Kit

DLR-CP-Mu-96T 96T
EUR 635
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Mouse Ceruloplasmin (CP) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids.

Mouse Ceruloplasmin (CP) ELISA Kit

RDR-CP-Mu-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 511

Mouse Ceruloplasmin (CP) ELISA Kit

RDR-CP-Mu-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 709

Rabbit Polyclonal antibody Anti-CRBN

Anti-CRBN 50 µg
EUR 349

Mouse C-Peptide (CP) ELISA Kit

CEA447Mu-10x96wellstestplate 10x96-wells test plate
EUR 4391.16
Description: This is Competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mouse C-Peptide (CP) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids.

Mouse C-Peptide (CP) ELISA Kit

CEA447Mu-1x48wellstestplate 1x48-wells test plate
EUR 449.27
Description: This is Competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mouse C-Peptide (CP) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids.

Mouse C-Peptide (CP) ELISA Kit

CEA447Mu-1x96wellstestplate 1x96-wells test plate
EUR 598.96
Description: This is Competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mouse C-Peptide (CP) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids.

Mouse C-Peptide (CP) ELISA Kit

CEA447Mu-5x96wellstestplate 5x96-wells test plate
EUR 2395.32
Description: This is Competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mouse C-Peptide (CP) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids.

Mouse C-Peptide (CP) ELISA Kit

4-CEA447Mu
  • EUR 4442.00
  • EUR 2346.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • 10 plates of 96 wells
  • 5 plates of 96 wells
  • 1 plate of 96 wells
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Competitive Inhibition method for detection of Mouse C-Peptide (CP) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species.

Mouse C-Peptide ELISA Kit (CP)

RK02705 96 Tests
EUR 521

Mouse C-Peptide (CP) CLIA Kit

20-abx490109
  • EUR 7973.00
  • EUR 4246.00
  • EUR 981.00
  • 10 × 96 tests
  • 5 × 96 tests
  • 96 tests

Human C-Peptide ELISA Kit

RD-C-Peptide-Hu-48Tests 48 Tests
EUR 387

Human C-Peptide ELISA Kit

RD-C-Peptide-Hu-96Tests 96 Tests
EUR 532