kashbiotech

NOTCH3-targeted antibody drug conjugates regress tumors by inducing apoptosis in receptor cells and through transendocytosis into ligand cells

 Aberrant NOTCH3 signaling and overexpression is oncogenic, related with most cancers stem cells and drug resistance, but therapeutic concentrating on stays elusive. Right here, we develop NOTCH3-targeted antibody drug conjugates (NOTCH3-ADCs) by bioconjugation of an auristatin microtubule inhibitor via a protease cleavable linker to 2 antibodies with differential skills to inhibit signaling. The signaling inhibitory antibody quickly induces ligand-independent receptor clustering and internalization via each caveolin and clathrin-mediated pathways.

The non-inhibitory antibody additionally effectively endocytoses through clathrin with out inducing receptor clustering however with slower lysosomal co-localization kinetics. As well as, DLL4 ligand binding to the NOTCH3 receptor mediates transendocytosis of NOTCH3-ADCs into ligand-expressing cells. NOTCH3-ADCs internalize into receptor and ligand cells impartial of signaling and induce cell dying in each cell sorts representing an atypical mechanism of ADC cytotoxicity. Therapy of xenografts with NOTCH3-ADCs results in sustained tumor regressions, outperforms standard-of-care chemotherapy, and permits concentrating on of tumors that overexpress NOTCH3 impartial of signaling inhibition.

Fc-binding antibody-recruiting molecules exploit endogenous antibodies for anti-tumor immune responses

 

Redirecting endogenous antibodies in the bloodstream to tumor cells utilizing artificial molecules is a promising strategy to set off anti-tumor immune responses. Nonetheless, present molecular designs solely allow the usage of a small fraction of endogenous antibodies, limiting the therapeutic potential. Right here, we report Fc-binding antibody-recruiting molecules (Fc-ARMs) as the primary instance addressing this subject. Fc-ARMs are composed of an Fc-binding peptide and a concentrating on ligand, enabling the exploitation of endogenous antibodies via fixed affinity to the Fc area of antibodies, whose sequence is conserved in distinction to the Fab area.

We present that Fc-ARM concentrating on folate receptor-α (FR-α) redirects a clinically used antibody combination to FR-α+ most cancers cells, leading to most cancers cell lysis by pure killer cells in vitro. Fc-ARMs efficiently interacted with antibodies in vivo and amassed in tumors. Moreover, Fc-ARMs recruited antibodies to suppress tumor progress in a mouse mannequin. Thus, Fc-ARMs have the potential to be a novel class of most cancers immunotherapeutic brokers.

Significance of hepatitis B floor antigen, IgM/IgG core antibody and hepatitis B virus DNA in blood donors

 

Introduction: Identification of hepatitis B virus carriers in blood donors is crucial with a view to keep away from transmission of the illness through blood transfusion.

Goal: To find out if blood donors with constructive outcomes for serological markers HBsAg and anti-HBc have been hepatitis B virus DNA carriers.

Strategies: 12,745 samples have been collected from six Ecuadorian blood banks and analyzed for HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs infectious markers by automated ELISA. All samples that examined constructive for one, two or all three markers have been analyzed with molecular methods to find out the presence of viral DNA.

Outcomes: 27.5 % of the samples that have been reactive for anti-HBc alone and 100 % of these with constructive outcomes for HbsAg and IgM/IgG anti-HBc have been recognized to include hepatitis B virus DNA (p = 0.001).

Conclusions: The choice of an infection markers, in addition to the detection strategies outline the outcomes. Performing two serological and one molecular check is necessary with a view to establish hepatitis B virus carriers and stop its transmission.

Introducción: La identificación de portadores del virus de la hepatitis B en donantes de sangre es imperativo para evitar la transmisión de la enfermedad a través de transfusiones sanguíneas.

Objetivo: Determinar si los donantes de sangre con resultados positivos en los marcadores serológicos HbsAg y anti-HBc eran portadores del ADN del virus de la hepatitis B.

Métodos: Se recolectaron 12 745 muestras de seis bancos de sangre ecuatorianos, las cuales fueron analizadas con pruebas serológicas para identificar marcadores infecciosos de HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs mediante ELISA automatizada. Todas las muestras positivas para uno, dos o los tres marcadores fueron analizadas con técnica molecular para determinar la presencia del ADN viral.

Resultados: Se identificó que 27.5 % de las muestras reactivas solo a anti-HBc y 100 % de las muestras con resultados positivos de HBsAg/anti-HBc-IgM/IgG presentaron ADN del virus de la hepatitis B (p = 0.001).

Conclusiones: La elección de los marcadores de infección y los métodos de detección definen los resultados. Es importante la realización de dos pruebas serológicas y una molecular para identificar a los portadores del virus de la hepatitis B y evitar su transmisión.

kashbiotech
kashbiotech

Two human antibodies to a meningococcal serogroup B vaccine antigen improve binding of complement Issue H by stabilizing the Issue H binding web site

 

Microbial pathogens bind host complement regulatory proteins to evade the immune system. The bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, or meningococcus, binds a number of complement regulators, together with human Issue H (FH). FH binding protein (FHbp) is a element of two licensed meningococcal vaccines and in mice FHbp elicits antibodies that inhibit binding of FH to FHbp, which defeat the bacterial evasion mechanism. Nonetheless, people vaccinated with FHbp develop antibodies that improve binding of FH to the micro organism, which might restrict the effectiveness of the vaccines. Within the current research, we present that two vaccine-elicited antibody fragments (Fabs) remoted from completely different human topics improve binding of complement FH to meningococcal FHbp by ELISA.

The 2 Fabs have completely different results on the kinetics of FH binding to immobilized FHbp as measured by floor plasmon resonance. The 1.7- and a couple of.0-Å decision X-ray crystal buildings of the Fabs in complexes with FHbp illustrate that the 2 Fabs bind to comparable epitopes on the amino-terminal area of FHbp, adjoining to the FH binding web site.

Superposition fashions of ternary complexes of every Fab with FHbp and FH present that there’s probably minimal contact between the Fabs and FH. Collectively, the buildings reveal that the Fabs improve binding of FH to FHbp by altering the conformations and mobilities of two loops adjoining to the FH binding web site of FHbp. As well as, the 1.5 Å-resolution construction of one of many remoted Fabs defines the structural rearrangements related to binding to FHbp. The FH-enhancing human Fabs, that are mirrored within the human polyclonal antibody responses, have necessary implications for tuning the effectiveness of FHbp-based vaccines.

 

Anti-Integrin alpha 5/ITGA5 Antibody

A01911 100ug/vial
EUR 334

Anti-Integrin alpha 5/ITGA5 Antibody

PB9254 100ug/vial
EUR 294

Alpha V Beta 5 Integrin, Peptide Aptamer, Biotinylated

AP-301-B 1 mg Ask for price

Alpha V Beta 5 Integrin, Peptide Aptamer, unlabeled

AP-301-U 5 mg Ask for price

Integrin alpha 5 Antibody

49269-100ul 100ul
EUR 333

Integrin alpha 5 Antibody

49269-50ul 50ul
EUR 239

Integrin alpha-5 Antibody

abx234347-100ug 100 ug
EUR 509
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Anti-Integrin alpha 5 Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody

M01911 100ug/vial
EUR 397
Description: Rabbit Monoclonal Integrin alpha 5 Antibody. Validated in IP, IF, WB and tested in Human, Mouse, Rat.

Alpha V Beta 5 Integrin, Peptide Aptamer, FITC labelled

AP-301-F 1 mg Ask for price

Human Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) Protein

20-abx067272
  • EUR 662.00
  • EUR 272.00
  • EUR 2040.00
  • EUR 787.00
  • EUR 481.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

abx026655-400ul 400 ul
EUR 523
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

abx026655-80l 80 µl
EUR 286
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

20-abx006811
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 592.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 314.00
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 20 ul
  • 50 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) Antibody

20-abx179024
  • EUR 1678.00
  • EUR 773.00
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • Please enquire.

Integrin alpha 5 (CD49e) Antibody

abx216264-100ug 100 ug
EUR 439
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) Antibody

20-abx101634
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1149.00
  • EUR 565.00
  • EUR 314.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) Antibody

20-abx101635
  • EUR 467.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1344.00
  • EUR 634.00
  • EUR 356.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

20-abx113185
  • EUR 732.00
  • EUR 398.00
  • 150 ul
  • 50 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) Antibody

20-abx129339
  • EUR 425.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1177.00
  • EUR 578.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) Antibody

20-abx172956
  • EUR 815.00
  • EUR 425.00
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • Please enquire.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

abx011678-100ul 100 ul
EUR 411
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin alpha 5 Conjugated Antibody

C49269 100ul
EUR 397

Integrin alpha 5 (CD49e) Antibody

AF5200 200ul
EUR 304
Description: Integrin α5 (CD49e) Antibody detects endogenous levels of total Integrin α5 (CD49e).

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

20-abx338742
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

20-abx327245
  • EUR 314.00
  • EUR 244.00
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

20-abx323564
  • EUR 314.00
  • EUR 244.00
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

20-abx325454
  • EUR 314.00
  • EUR 244.00
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin alpha 5 Rabbit mAb

A19069-100ul 100 ul
EUR 410

Integrin alpha 5 Rabbit mAb

A19069-200ul 200 ul
EUR 571

Integrin alpha 5 Rabbit mAb

A19069-20ul 20 ul
EUR 221

Integrin alpha 5 Rabbit mAb

A19069-50ul 50 ul
EUR 287

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

20-abx000873
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 592.00
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Recombinant Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5)

4-RPB287Bo01
  • EUR 556.96
  • EUR 252.00
  • EUR 1813.60
  • EUR 671.20
  • EUR 1242.40
  • EUR 436.00
  • EUR 4384.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: Q27977
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 61.6kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: 5.8
Description: Recombinant Bovine Integrin Alpha 5 expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5)

4-RPB287Hu01
  • EUR 476.32
  • EUR 230.00
  • EUR 1511.20
  • EUR 570.40
  • EUR 1040.80
  • EUR 382.00
  • EUR 3628.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P08648
  • Buffer composition: 20mM Tris, 150mM NaCl, pH8.0, containing 1mM EDTA, 1mM DTT, 0.01% SKL, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 47.6kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: 8.4
Description: Recombinant Human Integrin Alpha 5 expressed in: E.coli

Recombinant Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5)

4-RPB287Mu01
  • EUR 476.32
  • EUR 230.00
  • EUR 1511.20
  • EUR 570.40
  • EUR 1040.80
  • EUR 382.00
  • EUR 3628.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P11688
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 50.0kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: 8.7
Description: Recombinant Mouse Integrin Alpha 5 expressed in: E.coli

anti-Integrin beta 5

YF-PA12792 100 ug
EUR 403
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin beta 5

anti-Integrin beta 5

YF-PA24023 50 ul
EUR 334
Description: Mouse polyclonal to Integrin beta 5

Rabbit Anti-Human Alpha Defensin 5 (NP-5),antiserum #1

HDEFA51-S 100 ul
EUR 457

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ93727 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin alpha3.

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ93728 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin alpha4.

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ93729 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin alphaE.

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ93730 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin alphaV.

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ96613 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin alpha4.

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ96825 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin alphaD.

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ97273 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin alphaL.

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ97283 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin alpha2.

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ97284 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Integrin alpha5 is a protein encoded by the ITGA5 gene which is approximately 114,5 kDa. Integrin alpha5 is localised to the cell membrane and is involved in the MAPK-Erk pathway, apoptotic pathways, integrin pathway, focal adhesion and blood-brain barrier and immune cell transmigration. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha subunit and a beta subunit that function in cell surface adhesion and signalling. Integrin alpha5 is expressed in the liver, lung, nervous system, bone marrow and blood. Mutations in the ITGA5 gene may result in colon carcinoma and congenital epulis STJ97284 was affinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using epitope-specific immunogen. This polyclonal antibody detects endogenous levels of Integrin alpha5 protein.

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ97285 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin alpha6.

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ97657 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin alpha3.

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ98181 100 µl
EUR 234
Description: Mouse monoclonal to Integrin alpha5.

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ98510 100 µl
EUR 234
Description: Mouse monoclonal to Integrin alpha5.

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ98511 100 µl
EUR 234
Description: Mouse monoclonal to Integrin alpha6.

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ98709 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin alpha1.

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ98737 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin alphaX.

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ98984 200 µl
EUR 197
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin alphaE.

anti-Integrin alpha 6

YF-PA12761 50 ul
EUR 363
Description: Mouse polyclonal to Integrin alpha 6

anti-Integrin alpha 6

YF-PA12762 100 ug
EUR 403
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin alpha 6

anti-Integrin alpha 1

YF-PA12784 50 ug
EUR 363
Description: Mouse polyclonal to Integrin alpha 1

anti-Integrin alpha 4

YF-PA12785 100 ug
EUR 403
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin alpha 4

anti-Integrin alpha V

YF-PA12786 50 ul
EUR 363
Description: Mouse polyclonal to Integrin alpha V

anti-Integrin alpha V

YF-PA12787 50 ug
EUR 363
Description: Mouse polyclonal to Integrin alpha V

anti-Integrin alpha V

YF-PA12788 100 ug
EUR 403
Description: Rabbit polyclonal to Integrin alpha V

anti-Integrin alpha 6

YF-PA24004 50 ul
EUR 334
Description: Mouse polyclonal to Integrin alpha 6

anti-Integrin alpha 1

YF-PA24011 50 ul
EUR 334
Description: Mouse polyclonal to Integrin alpha 1

anti-Integrin alpha 4

YF-PA24013 50 ul
EUR 334
Description: Mouse polyclonal to Integrin alpha 4

anti-Integrin alpha 9

YF-PA24015 50 ul
EUR 334
Description: Mouse polyclonal to Integrin alpha 9

anti-Integrin alpha E

YF-PA24017 50 ul
EUR 334
Description: Mouse polyclonal to Integrin alpha E

Anti-alpha 5 beta 1 Integrin (Volociximab), Human IgG4 Antibody

A1092-200
EUR 729

Mouse Anti Human Integrin Alpha V Beta 5 Monoclonal Antibody

CABT-49626MH 0.1 mg
EUR 1375

Human Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) ELISA Kit

DLR-ITGa5-Hu-48T 48T
EUR 498
  • Should the Human Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement.
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids.

Human Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) ELISA Kit

DLR-ITGa5-Hu-96T 96T
EUR 647
  • Should the Human Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement.
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates or other biological fluids.

Human Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) ELISA Kit

20-abx151987
  • EUR 7112.00
  • EUR 3792.00
  • EUR 879.00
  • 10 × 96 tests
  • 5 × 96 tests
  • 96 tests
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.

ELISA kit for Human Integrin alpha-5

EK4913 96 tests
EUR 670
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for quantification of Human Integrin alpha-5 in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids.

Human ITGA5(Integrin alpha-5) ELISA Kit

EH2445 96T
EUR 567.6
  • Detection range: 0.156-10 ng/ml
  • Uniprot ID: P08648
  • Alias: ITGA5/CD49e/VLA-5 alpha/CD49 antigen-like family member E/CD49e/CD49e antigen/Fibronectin receptor subunit alpha/fibronectin receptor, alpha subunit/FNRAVLA5A/integrin alpha-5/Integrin alpha-F
  • Show more
Description: Method of detection: Double Antibody, Sandwich ELISA;Reacts with: Homo sapiens;Sensitivity: 0.094 ng/ml

Human ITGA5/ Integrin alpha-5 ELISA Kit

E1342Hu 1 Kit
EUR 605

Human Integrin alpha- 5, ITGA5 ELISA KIT

ELI-07691h 96 Tests
EUR 824

Human Integrin alpha-5(ITGA5) Elisa kit

CSB-E17350h-24T 1 plate of 24 wells
EUR 165
  • Sample volume: 50-100ul
  • Detection wavelength: 450nm
  • Assay performance time: 1 to 4 hours.
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Human Integrin alpha-5 (ITGA5) in samples from serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, urine, cerebrospinalfluid (CSF). A new trial version of the kit, which allows you to test the kit in your application at a reasonable price.

Human Integrin alpha-5(ITGA5) Elisa kit

1-CSB-E17350h
  • EUR 900.00
  • EUR 5476.00
  • EUR 2900.00
  • 1 plate of 96 wells
  • 10 plates of 96 wells each
  • 5 plates of 96 wells each
  • Sample volume: 50-100ul
  • Detection wavelength: 450nm
  • Assay performance time: 1 to 4 hours.
Description: Quantitativesandwich ELISA kit for measuring Human Integrin alpha-5(ITGA5) in samples from serum, plasma, cell culture supernates, urine, cerebrospinalfluid(CSF). Now available in a cost efficient pack of 5 plates of 96 wells each, conveniently packed along with the other reagents in 5 separate kits.

Human Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) ELISA Kit

abx571172-96tests 96 tests
EUR 739
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Human Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) CLIA Kit

20-abx492595
  • EUR 7973.00
  • EUR 4246.00
  • EUR 981.00
  • 10 × 96 tests
  • 5 × 96 tests
  • 96 tests
  • Please enquire.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) Polyclonal Antibody (Human)

4-PAB287Hu01
  • EUR 239.00
  • EUR 2391.00
  • EUR 598.00
  • EUR 299.00
  • EUR 211.00
  • 100ul
  • 10ml
  • 1ml
  • 200ul
  • 20ul
  • Sequence of the immunogen: ITGa5 (Glu895~Ala1049)
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH7.4, containing 0.02% NaN3, 50% glycerol.
Description: A Rabbit polyclonal antibody against Human Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5)

Human Integrin Alpha 5(ITGa5) ELISA Kit

QY-E05294 96T
EUR 394

Human Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) ELISA Kit

SEB287Hu-10x96wellstestplate 10x96-wells test plate
EUR 4502.43
  • The Intra-assay Precision is determined when 3 samples with low, middle and high level of Human Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) were tested on 3 different plates, 8 replicates in each plate
  • CV(%) = SD/meanX100
  • Intra-Assay: CV<10%
  • Inter-Assay: CV<12%
Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) in Tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids.

 

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